NBarclays Plc BARC. LUBS AG UBSG. N and Royal Bank of Scotland Plc RBS. L were accused by U. All but UBS pleaded guilty to conspiring to manipulate the price of U. UBS pleaded guilty to a different charge. Bank of America Corp BAC. Opens was fined but avoided a guilty plea over the actions of its traders in chatrooms. Attorney General Loretta Lynch at a news conference in Washington. The misconduct occurred forexafter regulators started punishing banks for rigging the London interbank offered rate Libora global benchmark, and banks had pledged to overhaul their corporate culture and bolster compliance. The investigations are far from over. Prosecutors could bring cases against opens, using the banks' cooperation pledged as part of their agreements. Probes by federal and state authorities are ongoing over how banks used electronic forex trading to favor their own interests at the expense of clients. The settlements on Wednesday stood out in part because the U. Department of Justice forced Citigroup's main banking unit Citicorp, and the parents of JPMorgan, Barclays and Royal Bank of Scotland to plead guilty to U. It was the first time in decades that the parent or main banking unit of a major American financial institution pleaded guilty to criminal charges. That made it easier for the government and the banks to forex any fallout on the financial system and bank customers. Banks involved in the plea deals have been negotiating york exemptions to avoid serious business disruptions that could be triggered by the pleas. Securities and Exchange Commission has granted waivers to JPMorgan and the other banks that pleaded guilty, allowing them to continue their usual securities business. With prosecutors and the banks working out ways for the institutions to keep doing business, analysts worried that convictions would become more routine and costly for banks. York said the guilty pleas probe make it easier for pension funds and investment managers who have regular currency dealings with banks to sue them for losses on those trades. Its traders participated in the conspiracy from as early as December until at least Januaryaccording to the plea agreement. Traders at New, JPMorgan and other banks were part of a group known as "The Cartel" or "The Mafia," participating in almost daily conversations in an exclusive chat room and coordinating trades and otherwise fixing rates. The bank's behavior was "an embarrassment," Citigroup Chief York Officer Front Corbat said in a memo to employees, which was seen by Reuters. Corbat said an internal investigation forex conclude shortly. So far nine people have been fired. University of Virginia law school professor Brandon Garrett said the last case comparable to Citi or JPMorgan, involving a major U. JPMorgan Chase said the conduct underlying the antitrust charge was "principally attributable to a single trader" who has been fired. In New York, shares in JP Morgan and Citigroup were down 0. Its staff continued to engage in misleading sales practices despite a pledge by CEO Antony Jenkins to overhaul the bank's high-risk, high-reward culture. Barclays' sales staff would offer clients a different price to the one offered by the bank's traders, known as a "mark-up" to boost profits. Generating mark-ups was a high priority for front managers, with one employee noting, "If you ain't cheating, you ain't trying. Barclays fired four traders in the new month. New York state's banking regulator Benjamin Lawsky ordered the bank to fire another four who had been suspended or placed on paid leave. Shares in the bank rose more than 3 percent to an month high as investors welcomed the removal of uncertainty over the forex scandal. UBS was the first firm to report the misconduct to U. UBS's penalty was lower probe expected, and helped its shares rise to their highest in six-and-a-half years. The global investigation into manipulation of foreign exchange rates has put the largely unregulated forex market on a tighter leash and accelerated a push to automate trading. Authorities in South Africa announced this week they were opening their own probe. Additional reporting by Lindsay Dunsmuir and Sarah Lynch in Washington, Joshua Franklin, Katharina Bart and Oliver Hirt in Zurich; Writing by Carmel Crimmins and Karen Freifeld; Editing by Jane Merriman, Ruth Pitchford, Soyoung Kim, Jeffrey Benkoe and Lisa Shumaker. NEW YORK Accenture Plc and Microsoft Corp are teaming up to new a digital ID network using blockchain technology, as part of a United Nations-supported project to provide legal identification new 1. Reuters is the news and media division of Thomson Reuters. 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